Posted in English

PART OF SPEECH AND SENTENCE ELEMENTS

Hi guys, today I want to share about the first material in Grammar Class, part of speech and sentence elements.

Next week, my friends and I will get a mid-test, so I am trying to remind what I’ve learned in the class with Ms. Fey. By the way, please pray for us to get a great score in that test.

Okay, do you still remember what is part of speech? Part of speech is the basic types of words that English has.

Here are the part of speech:

  1. Noun is words refer to person, place, thing, event, substance, or quality; for example: Resna, Aussie, book, birthday, oxygen, kindness.
  2. Pronoun is words that take the place of noun; those are: I, you, we, they, he, she, it, mine, yours, ours, hers, his, theirs, me, you, her, him, us, them.
  3. Adjective is words that describe a noun or pronoun; for example: beautiful, large, slim, nine, blue, pretty.
  4. Verb is words or phrase that express an action, condition, or experience; for example: cook, sleep, run, take, buy, walk, hide, talk.
  5. Adverb is words which describe or give more information about a verb, adjective, adverb or phrase; for example: beautifully, carefully, late, in the afternoon, in the library.
  6. Preposition is words that show a connection between other words; for example: in, on, at, under, behind.
  7. Conjunction is words used to link words, phrases or clauses; for example: because, so, and, but, or, for.
  8. Interjection is words which are used to show a short sudden expression of emotion; for example: Ouch, errr, wow, horray, no way, hey.

Then, here are the sentence elements:

  • Subject

Subject performs the action of the sentence. It can be a nounnoun phrase, or noun clause. Those are three kinds of subject:

  1. The complete subject, includes all the words that tell who or what the sentence is about. Example: Everyone in my house is keeping a secret.
  2. The simple subject, the main word or words in the complete subject. Example: 1) Everyone in my house is keeping a secret. 2) Marlon practiced and daydreamed for weeks before the game.
  3. A compound subject, contains two or more subjects that have the same predicate. The simple subjects in a compound subject are usually joined by and. Example: The boy and the girl are walking around the park.
  • Predicate

A predicate is usually defined as a word that comes after the subject to complete the meaning of the sentence or clause. Example: 1) He broke the table. 2) He is handsome.

  • Object

The object is the receiver of the action in a sentence. Like subjects, objects can be any word or group of words functioning as a noun, and each type of object can also be categorized as a complete, simple, or compound object. Categorized by their different functions within a sentence, the three types of object are:

  1. Direct Object – I wrote a letter.
  2. Indirect Object – I wrote a letter to my friend.
  3. Prepositional Object – I wrote on the paper.
  • Complement

Complements complete the predicate by modifying a noun in the sentence;  linking verbs require a complement to form a complete sentence.

  1. Subject Complement – “The car is new.” The subject complement follows a linking verb and modifies the subject. It can be a predicate adjective (He is sad), a predicate noun (He is the boss), or an adverbial complement (He is in the office).
  2. Object Complement – “I painted my room purple.” The object complement modifies the direct object, either by describing it or renaming it (They elected him governor).
  3. Adjective Complement – “He was happy to help.” The adjective complement is a special case in which a group of words modifies an adjective. If removed, the adjective complement leaves a grammatically complete sentence, but the meaning of the sentence changes.
  4. Verb Complement – Some grammarians use the term “verb complement” to refer to direct and indirect objects, while others use it to refer to a complement occurring after a linking verb (a subject complement).
  • Adverbials

An adverbial is an adverbadverbial phrase, or adverbial clause: any word or group of words that acts as an adverb within a sentence. They usually modify verbs, but they can also modify the whole sentence.

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